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Pet Dental Health

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Traditionally, Pet Dental Month is celebrated in February. But this promotion as become so popular, the Highway 24 Vet Clinic has decided to repeat the campaign again in November. Dental health is directly related to your pet’s overall health, and taking care of their teeth helps ensure they can live a long, healthy life.

During dental month, all dental products, dental diets, dental procedures, and dental accessories are 15% off! We’ll highlight some of those products here and then demonstrate the importance of a professional dental cleaning with a case study of one of our patients.

CET Chews are a tooth-friendly way to fight plaque and tartar! They come in various sizes to fit the needs of every dog! Bonus: chewing helps fight cold-weather boredom!

Brushing is important but be sure to use toothpaste meant for pets, not people! We offer pet-specific toothpaste in a variety of flavors to suit even the pickiest palate!

Fight plaque and tartar with every meal! Specially designed kibble is scientifically proven to help fight dental disease as your pet eats! Kibble is available for both cats and dogs and also comes in a “small bites” version for teacup-sized canines!

Healthy Mouth Water Additive is the first VOHC approved water additive to aid in the prevention of dental disease. This product prevents the accumulation of bacteria in the mouth, thereby reducing plaque and keeping the mouth cleaner.

One of our friends taking advantage of the November dental specialists is Marco! This 8 year old shih tzu mix was recently adopted by one of our clients. His teeth had extensive calculus build up on his teeth, as well as some minor gingivitis starting. Typical for his breed type, his teeth were crowded and misaligned, meaning he could really benefit from us helping clean up his mouth.

Marco had bloodwork completed before surgery, to ensure that his body could handle undergoing a general anesthetic. Once we made sure there were no underlying diseases or concerns in the lab report, we had him come in first thing in the morning to be admitted for his procedure. Marco was sedated, given pain medication, and then placed under a general anesthesia and intubated. Once Marco was moved into the dental suite, his teeth were examined for any signs of dental disease. Our staff thoroughly checks the entire mouth for loose teeth, pockets, gum recession, and evaluates the amount of tartar and gingivitis. Then our technicians take digital dental radiographs to assess the health of the teeth underneath the gum line.

Teeth that are problematic are extracted and the pockets left behind are flushed and sutured with dissolvable suture material. In Marco’s case, some of his incisors were unhealthy required removal.

Once the teeth that need extraction have been removed, the rest of the teeth are cleaned and polished. Our technicians use tools very similar to the ones that your own dentist will use, including electronic polishers and prophy pastes, to help decrease tooth sensitivity, strengthen enamel, and reduce the amount of tartar and bacteria build up.

Once the cleaning and polishing is complete, the mouth is rinsed and flushed and the pet is recovered from anesthesia. Your pet will go home later that day, and will need to come back in two weeks to have the mouth assessed to ensure everything has healed well.

Marco is home healing now and feeling much better without any dental pain. After your pet has had a dental cleaning, you’re encouraged to keep up good oral health with at-home care treatments like using water additives, brushing teeth, feeding dental diets, or offering dental treats that are approved by the Veterinarian Oral Health Council, proven to be effective in reversing or preventing dental disease.

To schedule a dental exam for your pet, or to ask questions about their oral health or products or procedures, give the clinic a call!

Prevention of heartworm disease

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Prevention of heartworm disease is very simple. Heartworm preventative for dogs is usually started between 2-3 months of age and the preventative is given once each month for life. (a daily heartworm preventative is also available).

Since heartworms are spread by mosquitoes which are prevalent 6 months of the year here in Ontario, pills can be given during this time frame for prevention.

Heartworms are the most life threatening parasite dogs can have. The microfilia (baby heartworms) are deposited in the dog’s body by a mosquito bite. These baby worms grow and move to the heart where the damage to your pet’s health is done.

Symptoms of heartworms do not show up sometimes for years. but early tests performed by your veterinarian will diagnose the disease before much damage is done. Your dog should be on the medication every month for life with once yearly testing to make sure the preventative is doing it’s job.

Selecting A Dog

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Living with a pet is an enjoyable, rewarding experience. Dogs and cats are fun to live with, and can also provide people with a large measure of comfort. Ask any satisfied pet owner about the pleasure they feel when they come home to a warm welcome from their dog or cat. You’ll hear how much happiness a pet can bring to a person’s life.

Pet owners have a responsibility to their dog or cat. Caring for a pet involves a lifelong commitment to the animal’s well-being. Before selecting a pet you should spend some time considering your choice. Your family members will also be affected by your decision to adopt a pet. Be sure to discuss the issues with them as you consider acquiring a pet. Everyone in your household should agree with your decision. Consideration should also be given to the adaptability of pets already in the household. Young animals generally adapt more easily to new pets than older animals do.

If you are willing to make the necessary commitments to ensure that your pet will have a healthy and happy life, you will certainly enjoy the benefits of owning a pet. Your pet will also enjoy the benefits of having a considerate, dedicated owner.

What type of pet is right for you?

Dogs are sincere, loyal and loving companions. Dog owners can enjoy active, outdoor recreation with their pets as well as quiet, relaxing times. Dogs add enjoyment to most situations – from playing ball with friends to reading a book or watching television with your companion nearby.

There are many important things to keep in mind before deciding on whether or not to get a dog. Dogs, and especially puppies, can be very appealing pets. Seeing a dog at an animal shelter can really tug at a person’s heartstrings. Animal shelters – the term includes Humane Societies and Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCAs) – will not allow you to adopt an animal on impulse. You should not acquire a dog on impulse from any other source either. Never buy one as a gift for someone. Each person should choose their own dog. Take the time to carefully consider whether or not you can accommodate a dog in your life.

Selecting a Dog

A DOG CAN BE AN EXCELLENT COMPANION, IF YOU ARE WILLING TO MAKE THE PROPER COMMITMENTS. Your relationship with a dog should be mutually beneficial, enjoying each other’s company at play and at rest. Scientists have found that dogs and cats are good for your health. People who enjoy the companionship of a pet, either a cat or a dog, may be better equipped to withstand some of the stresses of life.

Is A Dog The Right Pet For You?

A DOG REQUIRES A LOT OF ATTENTION AND CARE. You must be able to provide your dog with food and a constant supply of fresh, clean water. Dogs also need regular exercise and should be walked 2 or 3 times a day. Letting your dog out in a backyard does not provide it with enough exercise, stimulation or fun.

If you are often away from home for extended periods of time, it will be difficult for you to care for your dog properly. You must be prepared to care for your dog for a long time; small dogs may live for 15 or more years and large dogs usually live less than 12 years.

You must allow for time to train your dog. Obedience classes are the best way to do this. Most lessons take one hour a week in class and you will need at least an eight-week session. An additional 20 or 30 minutes a day are required for practice out of class during your dog’s first year. It is important to continue working with your dog for it to become well-behaved and properly socialized. Training can be fun and a well-trained dog will be welcome in more places. Benefits of these efforts will be enjoyed by you and your dog throughout its entire life.
Dogs require regular grooming to keep their coats clean and healthy. You will need to either take time to do the grooming yourself with a comb or brush, or take your dog to a grooming parlour. You will also need to trim your dog’s nails every few weeks, check to make sure its ears are clean and brush its teeth regularly. You will have to clean your home more often, especially if your dog is a long-haired breed.

Living Space

MOST DOGS NEED A LOT OF LIVING SPACE. You may not have room for a large dog if your home is small. It is also important that you have access to a fenced backyard or other safe exercise area. Urban dwellers especially should make sure they have access to a suitable exercise area before getting a dog.

Certain dogs are noisier than others, and barking dogs will annoy close neighbours in the city. Large dogs can scale short fences, so you may need to install a higher fence if you plan to let your dog run loose in your backyard. Other dogs, especially hounds and terriers, can dig under fences. Water dogs, like retrievers and spaniels, enjoy swimming and appreciate having access to freshwater swimming areas.

Some apartment buildings do not allow dogs and it is unfair to a dog and to other tenants to try to hide a dog in such an apartment.

Some people are allergic to dogs or cats and may suffer if a dog lives in their home. If you have experienced allergic reactions near dogs, you may want to be tested for allergies before acquiring a dog for yourself. Allergy sufferers can become uncomfortable and have difficulty breathing when they are indoors with a dog or cat. Allergy sufferers who like dogs should be aware that some breeds, like poodles, do not usually cause allergic reactions.

Expenses

THE INITIAL COST OF PURCHASING A DOG IS JUST THE FIRST EXPENSE IN MAINTAINING A HEALTHY, HAPPY DOG. There are also costs for food, collars, leashes, toys and licenses. Health care, including annual visits to the veterinarian’s office for check-ups and vaccinations, and surgical fees to have your dog spayed or neutered, must also be paid. Identification, including dog tags, tattoos or microchips, should also be purchased to protect your dog and to satisfy municipal bylaws. Training fees and health insurance can also add to the cost of keeping a dog.
If you leave home for extended periods of time you will need to pay boarding fees if you have to leave your dog at a kennel.

What Type Of Dog Is Right For You?

IF YOU HAVE THE COMMITMENT, TIME, MONEY AND SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE A DOG, you must now consider what type of dog to choose. Consider where you will obtain the dog, how you will care for it and what type of dog will best fit in with your lifestyle.

IDEALLY, YOU SHOULD ACQUIRE A PUPPY WHEN IT IS ABOUT 8 TO 12 WEEKS OLD. This will give the pup time with its mother and litter-mates, so that it socializes better with other dogs later in life. However, puppies also bond quickly with people at a young age. It is important that the puppy learns to interact with people as well as with other dogs. The time frame during which this socialization best occurs is between 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Puppies who don’t grow accustomed to people before they are 14 weeks old can become fearful or aggressive around humans. A properly raised puppy should become a well-adjusted, friendly dog.

Puppies require consistent care and close attention, and may soil your house until they become house-trained, generally by the time they are about three months old. Puppies may engage in play biting and chew furniture. If you have small children you will have to be vigilant to ensure that rough treatment doesn’t harm the puppy’s fragile bones. No young child should be left alone with a puppy or dog.

You might consider acquiring a puppy or an adult dog from an animal shelter. It is a common misconception that an older dog can’t adapt to a new home. Many adult dogs available for adoption are victims of unfortunate circumstances in a previous home. They are often housebroken and already have some training. An owner may have to work harder to establish a solid bond with a mature dog, especially if it is a stray or abandoned animal which has been mistreated in the past. How well a dog has previously socialized with other people will largely determine how it adapts to your family.

Ask the shelter staff if they know anything about the dog’s previous owners and their routine with the dog. The dog will be more at ease with you if you can maintain a similar routine. It may take time to modify the dog’s behavioural patterns, but you will find that rescuing an older dog from loneliness can be very rewarding. A good obedience class will hasten bonding with an older dog and aid in correcting inappropriate behaviour.

Should You Spay/Neuter Your Dog?

MALE DOGS USUALLY TEND TO BE BIGGER THAN FEMALES OF THE SAME BREED. Unsterilized male dogs may be constantly anxious if there are in-season females nearby. Male dogs will use trees and posts to mark territory by leaving small amounts of urine. A male dog may urinate indoors if another dog has been inside recently, especially if it is not neutered. Male dogs may also display overt sexual behaviour during adolescence, although this tendency will diminish when the dog is neutered and as the dog ages.

Every 6 to 10 months, unspayed female dogs will have an oestrus period, commonly known as being in heat, that lasts about three weeks. The dog’s behaviour may change temporarily during this time and it may become less obedient.

You should have your dog sterilized by the time it is 6 to 8 months old. A veterinarian spays a female dog by removing the dog’s uterus and ovaries. A male dog is neutered by having a veterinarian remove the dog’s testicles. These operations are both safe. Having your dog sterilized early decreases its risk of developing tumours of the genital organs. Sterilization also helps eliminate many medical and behavioural problems. Most importantly, sterilizing your dog eliminates unwanted offspring that contribute to the number of animals needing homes. There are not enough good homes for all the cats and dogs in Canada so thousands must be euthanised every year.

Choosing A Breed

BESIDES BEING DIFFERENT IN APPEARANCE AND SIZE, EACH BREED OF DOG HAS DIFFERENT PERSONALITY TRAITS AND CARE REQUIREMENTS.

Purebred dogs are sometimes bred with close relations to keep certain desired physical characteristics in their offspring. Unfortunately, this practice can accentuate undesirable traits in a breed and may increase the tendency towards hereditary diseases. Avoid dogs that are the result of inbreeding. A veterinarian can inform you of some of the more important common problems in breeds you are considering.

Consider what activities you plan to engage in with your dog. If you like to camp or hike, a sporting dog, such as a Retriever or a Spaniel, would be a good choice. If you want a running companion consider a highly-energetic, long-legged breed like the Doberman or Husky. All dogs like to run, but short-legged breeds like the Basset Hound or Corgi may tire more quickly than a human runner. Black dogs and dogs with thick coats can overheat more quickly in hot weather.

Long-haired dogs require more grooming, especially after a walk outdoors. Small dogs can easily be injured by curious children or unwary adults. Some dogs are not suited to cold weather and you may find it difficult to exercise them during harsh Canadian winters. Dog boots and coats may be a necessity for dogs with very short hair. Certain breeds of dogs are bred for specific purposes and it may be hard to train such a dog away from certain behaviour. A veterinarian, animal shelter staff, kennel club member or dog breeder should be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of different dog breeds.

MIXED BREED DOGS, OR MONGRELS, ARE DOGS OF UNKNOWN PARENTAGE. Crossbreeds are the offspring of two or more different breeds. Mixed breed dogs usually turn out to be intelligent, loving, problem-free family pets, although it can be difficult to predict their character traits.

Mixed breeds are usually less expensive to acquire than purebred dogs. It is also generally accepted that mixed breeds are more resistant to certain health problems than purebred dogs. When selecting a mixed breed dog, ask the shelter or store staff if they have noticed anything, good or bad, about the dog’s behaviour.

Where Should You Look For A Dog?

WHEN YOU GO SEARCHING FOR YOUR IDEAL DOG THERE ARE SEVERAL PLACES YOU SHOULD LOOK. Animal shelters often have a wide variety of dogs in their kennels. Many dogs end up in shelters through no fault of their own and it is wrong to assume they won’t make ideal pets. They may have been abandoned and just need a second chance at a loving home.

If you have your heart set on a purebred dog, you should buy directly from a reputable breeder. A veterinarian, the Dogs in Canada Annual directory, or a kennel club should be able to direct you to a reputable breeder. You should always inspect the facilities and the dogs yourself. You should also ask for references from satisfied owners. A reputable breeder will ask you questions to ensure you will provide a good home for the dog.

A good breeder will have their breeding stock checked and certified against genetic disorders and will sell puppies with at least one set of vaccinations, a non-breeding agreement, and a guarantee against genetic disorders. Beware of breeders who will not allow you to see their kennel facilities and at least one parent of the puppy, or who breed a large number of breeds.
Some pet stores sell puppies. Others also serve as adoption agencies, matching prospective owners with dogs from animal shelters. If the puppies are not from an animal shelter, ask the pet store owner for information about the breeder before selecting a puppy. Look for the same qualities in a pet store as at a dog breeder’s facility. Good pet stores and dog breeding facilities should boast clean living areas, knowledgeable staff and healthy-looking pups. Expect a breeder or store staff to talk frankly about the nature of the animal you have in mind.

Whether you are at an animal shelter, dog breeder, or pet store, be sure to ask questions about each individual dog. The staff may have noticed certain behaviour and traits in either the dog you are considering, or in its parents. If it is possible, try to see the dog’s parents, since they may display desirable or undesirable traits not yet evident in their offspring. If you adopt the dog from an animal shelter, ask the staff if they have noticed anything, good or bad, about the dog’s behaviour. Some animal shelters conduct temperament testing of the dogs they have available for adoption.

In Canada, there is a growing awareness of the existence of puppy mills. Mills produce large numbers of puppies in poor, unhygienic conditions. Puppies raised in mills are often unsociable and make unsuitable pets. More importantly, conditions in mills are often unhealthy and the breeding dogs and puppies in them live unhappy lives. Be wary of buying a dog from someone who won’t or can’t tell you where the dog was born and raised. You should contact your local Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (SPCA) or humane society to report an establishment selling obviously unhealthy dogs or cats.

When you get a dog from any source, be sure to reach an agreement regarding returning the pet. You should be allowed time to take the animal to a veterinarian of your choice for an examination to ensure the dog or puppy is in good health. If you are offered a guarantee, make sure you understand exactly what the guarantee means for you and your dog.

Tips On Selecting A Dog

WHEN LOOKING FOR A DOG, DO NOT MAKE YOUR CHOICE BASED SOLELY ON A DOG’S APPEARANCE. Remember that common traits of a breed may not be present in every dog of that breed. Some dogs may be more dominant or submissive than others, or perhaps more excitable or fearful than others of the same breed or litter. Observe and handle each dog to determine any obvious traits it may have. Given the proper training and care, a puppy is likely to grow into a friendly, well-adjusted dog.

HERE ARE SOME SIMPLE TESTS TO TRY ON A NEW PUPPY TO TEST ITS TEMPERAMENT. A reputable dog breeder may have already done temperament tests on the puppies. If so, you should rely on their judgement to match a puppy to your situation.

Place the puppy on the ground out of the sight and hearing of the other pups. Step away from it and crouch down. Observe the puppy’s reactions when you clap your hands and call to it. A puppy that comes quickly with its tail level or down will probably respond well to training. A puppy that comes quickly and bites at you may be excessively dominant and difficult to handle for first-time dog owners. A pup that comes slowly or crawls, or that does not come at all, will likely turn into an overly submissive or anti-social dog.

Pet the puppy on his head, neck, shoulders and back. Touch its ears, muzzle and feet. A dominant puppy will growl, jump at you or attempt to bite your hands. An adaptable, easily-trained pup will wiggle and lick at your hands. A submissive puppy will roll over, bare his belly, turn his head away, and possibly urinate. A fearful or shy puppy may ignore you or struggle and walk away when released.

Roll the puppy onto its side or back and hold it gently until it calms down. Dominant, aggressive puppies will struggle violently, bite, cry and/or growl. An adaptable puppy will struggle, but should quickly calm down without any biting. Submissive puppies will calm down without struggling.

First-time dog owners, and people with children, should try to acquire an adaptable, easily-trained puppy. Dominant, aggressive or fearful pups are difficult to train and will be unsuitable for families with young children or for inexperienced dog owners. A submissive puppy will need gentle handling, and could be a good companion for a senior citizen or quiet adult. An overly submissive puppy will need to be protected from rough handling and may be unsuitable for families with young children.

YOU CAN MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT A DOG’S FUTURE HEALTH BY BEING VERY OBSERVANT WHEN YOU FIRST SEE IT. Puppies who have runny eyes, who sneeze, cough or vomit, who have diarrhea, scratch excessively, or who appear very thin should be examined by a veterinarian. It is natural to feel sympathy for the runt of a litter of puppies, but be warned that a runt may have more health problems than its litter-mates.

Other Sources Of Information On Choosing A Pet

ASK VETERINARIANS, THE SPCA OR A HUMANE SOCIETY TO HELP YOU SELECT THE RIGHT PET. Ask satisfied neighbours and friends how they selected their pet and what makes their relationship with their pet successful. Kennel clubs and dog trainers may have good information about dogs. Cat fancier associations will have information about cats and kittens.

Look under ‘dog’ or ‘cat’ in your library or bookstore and you will find numerous books devoted to helping you select a pet. The Pet Owner’s Guide to Dogs by Kay White offers advice on selecting, training and maintaining a dog. The Cornell Book of Cats, edited by Mordecai Segal, offers advice on selecting a cat. It profiles numerous breeds and gives information about medical conditions that can afflict cats. Many other books with general information on dogs or cats will have a chapter or section dealing with pet selection.

Computer users with access to the World Wide Web can find further information if they use their browser to look up pet-related topics.

As you look for information on selecting a pet, you may wish to gather information on feeding and caring for your prospective pet. Books in your local library will contain this information. The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association has a booklet available called “A Commonsense Guide to Feeding Your Dog or Cat”, which can be obtained by writing to the CVMA, 339 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON CAN K1R 7K1.

When you choose a pet, you are making an important decision that will affect your life – and the life of the pet you select – for many years. It is important to take the time to choose wisely. A good choice will lead to a mutually beneficial relationship between you and your pet. Take the time to ask questions; pet ownership and all its benefits should be an enjoyable experience which can only be achieved by an educated and eager prospective owner.

Selecting a Cat

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Living with a pet is an enjoyable, rewarding experience. Dogs and cats are fun to live with, and can also provide people with a large measure of comfort. Ask any satisfied pet owner about the pleasure the feel when they come home to a warm welcome from their dog or cat. You’ll hear how much happiness a pet can bring to a person’s life.

Pet owners have a responsibility to their dog or cat. Caring for a pet involves a lifelong commitment to the animal’s well-being. Before selecting a pet you should spend some time considering your choice. Your family members will also be affected by your decision to adopt a pet. Be sure to discuss the issues with them as you consider acquiring a pet. Everyone in your household should agree with your decision. Consideration should also be given to the adaptability of pets already in the household. Young animals generally adapt more easily to new pets than older animals do.

If you are willing to make the necessary commitments to ensure that your pet will have a healthy and happy life, you will certainly enjoy the benefits of owning a pet. Your pet will also enjoy the benefits of having a considerate, dedicated owner.

What type of pet is right for you?

Cat owners, like dog owners, are blessed with pets that are both friendly and interesting. Cats are active pets and enjoy chasing balls or playing hide and seek. They are also good companions in quieter times, sitting on a person’s lap, purring contently.

It may be tempting to accept the first kitten offered to you. Most kittens are cute and playful. There are, no doubt, many satisfied cat owners who were able to get their pet free over the back fence or after reading a newspaper advertisement. These cats are generally the result of a careless pet owner who allowed his or her unsterilized cat to roam outside. People who obtain their cats this way often do the same thing, perpetuating the problem of pet overpopulation. A prospective cat owner should consider whether or not a free cat is really cheaper than one adopted from an animal shelter where vaccinations, a medical exam, permanent identification and often sterilization are included.

The wise thing to do is to take the time to consider your choice of pet before deciding to bring a kitten or cat home. Some forethought can improve the chance that both you and your cat will be happy.

A DOMESTIC OR MIXED BREED CAT CAN BE ACQUIRED AT A LESSER COST THAN A PUREBRED CAT. Purebred cats, like purebred dogs, will cost more, depending on the breed. There are also costs for having your cat neutered or spayed, cat food, cat litter, accessories, toys and for your cat’s annual visit to the veterinary hospital for its checkup and vaccinations. It is also important to have your cat fitted with some form of identification, either a tattoo, tag or microchip. For most people these costs are not prohibitive to cat ownership, but should be considered.

Is A Cat The Right Pet For You?

CATS ARE MORE SELF-SUFFICIENT ANIMALS THAN DOGS, BUT DAILY CARE IS REQUIRED. Your cat must be fed daily and provided with a constant supply of fresh water. Your cat will also need regular grooming and nail trimming. Cats do groom themselves, but they can develop hairballs and mats if they have to clean themselves excessively. Regular brushing and occasional bathing is important in maintaining a healthy skin and coat. You must also clean your cat’s litter box every day. A cat living in a clean area will be less prone to develop medical and behavioural problems.

CATS ARE A FAVOURED PET FOR APARTMENT DWELLERS BECAUSE MOST CAN ADAPT TO SMALL-SIZED LIVING QUARTERS. Make sure you have enough room to set up a litter box away from your cat’s feeding area. Most people like to locate the litter box out of sight of visitors.

Cats, like dogs, need exercise. However, it is a misconception that cats need to roam free outside. To safeguard your cat, it should be leashed and supervised when outdoors unless it is in an enclosed area. Cats should not be let loose outside as they can be injured or killed by cars or other animals, they may be exposed to diseases and parasites, and they can become lost. It is also inconsiderate to your neighbours, as cats often defecate in gardens and can be noisy at night.

Most cats will not scratch furniture or curtains if they have suitable alternatives like scratching posts. If this does become a problem your veterinarian can help you resolve it through training or with plastic nail caps.

Prospective cat owners should also make sure they are not allergic to cats.

MANY PEOPLE HAVE DISCOVERED THAT CATS MAKE EXCELLENT PETS. Working people feel comfortable leaving their cat home alone throughout the day, although thought should be given to having two cats to keep each other company. Cats are affectionate and entertaining yet often less demanding on people who don’t have the time or energy to train and exercise a dog. In most parts of the country, apartment buildings and condominium associations allow tenants to keep cats because they are normally clean and easily adapt to using a litter box.

What Type Of Cat Should You Choose?

NO ONE TYPE OF CAT IS SMARTER, HEALTHIER, OR FRIENDLIER THAN ANY OTHER TYPE. Most cat owners are not interested in whether or not their cat is purebred.

MANY KITTEN OWNERS EXPERIENCE GREAT PLEASURE RAISING A KITTEN AND WATCHING IT MATURE INTO A WELL-BEHAVED, AFFECTIONATE CAT. Kittens are all attractive, but some can grow up to be anti-social cats. This can usually be overcome by providing a stimulating environment in the home.

Mature cats have established personalities and behavioural patterns. This can be great for a person who finds a cat whose habits suit the owner’s home situation and lifestyle. If the animal’s previous owner has let the animal roam outdoors you may have some difficulty teaching the animal to be content living indoors. Do not select a mature cat whose nature is radically different from what you are looking for in a pet.

Should You Spay/Neuter Your Cat?

YOU SHOULD HAVE YOUR CAT NEUTERED BEFORE IT IS 5 OR 6 MONTHS OLD (EITHER SPAYED, IF FEMALE OR NEUTERED, IF MALE). As with dogs, neutering pet cats prevents unwanted offspring. Neutered cats are also less likely to develop certain medical problems.

Males who have not been neutered, known as intact males, are more likely to roam and fight with other males if they are let loose outdoors. Intact male cats, like male dogs, mark their territory with urine and may urinate indoors when they are sexually aroused or simply want to mark their territory. The urine of intact males has a very pungent odour. Neutered cats may still engage in territorial spraying.

Unspayed female cats often display odd behaviour that can be unnerving to first-time cat owners. For several weeks, 2 or 3 times a year, the cat will experience oestrus and will exhibit behaviour designed to attract males. During oestrus the female produces a powerfully-scented fluid and may spray it in your house. They may also vocalize loudly in their efforts to get out to mate. Mating sounds can be unnerving to people, as it may appear as if mating cats are fighting.

If you are looking for a cat as a companion, there is no reason not to have the animal neutered or spayed.

Where To Find Your Cat

YOUR FIRST CHOICE FOR ACQUIRING A CAT MIGHT BE AN ANIMAL SHELTER. Many cats are abandoned or neglected and, consequently, most shelters in urban centres have a variety of cats and kittens from which to choose. You will be giving yourself a companion, while giving an abandoned and neglected animal a safe and loving home. The cost of acquiring a cat from a shelter is very reasonable, as it includes a veterinary exam, vaccinations and sometimes sterilization. Shelter staff will also have had time to observe their animals and should be able to answer questions frankly about the nature of their cats and kittens.

Veterinary hospitals sometimes serve as contact points for acquiring cats by advertising available cats and kittens on their notice boards.

Cat breeders offer purebred cats for people who either want to enter their pet in cat shows, or who like the characteristics of a certain breed. Purchasing a cat from a breeder can be expensive compared to other sources. A good breeder should house their cats in a clean, spacious area. If you want a purebred cat, but are not interested in showing your cat, be sure to ask the breeder if they have any “pet-quality” cats. These are animals which retain most of the character traits of the breed but lack some element, usually a particular marking or other physical trait that makes them less suitable for competitive showing. Pet-quality cats are usually available for a lower price than their show-quality litter mates.

Some pet stores offer cats (and dogs) from animal shelters. These stores function as adoption agencies. Others sell mixed breed and purebred cats. Ask the pet store owner for information about the breeder that supplied the kittens before purchasing a cat. Look for the same qualities in a pet store as you would expect to find at a breeder. Clean living areas, knowledgeable staff and playful, well-fed kittens all help identify a quality pet store.

Making Your Selection

IF YOU DECIDE TO GET A KITTEN, YOU SHOULD LOOK FOR 8 TO 12-WEEK-OLD ANIMALS. It is very important to look for a playful, physically and emotionally stable kitten with a gentle temperament. Kittens in this age group should weigh 2 or 3 pounds. If they are too heavy or too thin, they may have health problems. Look for a kitten that is neither too shy nor too aggressive. A healthy kitten should stand straight and walk with a bouncy step. If the cat limps, seems listless or lethargic, or has any nasal or ocular discharges, it could be ill and should be avoided. Look at the kitten’s hair. It should be soft and lustrous without any clumps. The skin beneath the hair should be free of scaly areas or sores. Salt and pepper patterns on a kitten’s fur can indicate the presence of flea eggs and dried blood flecks. Bare patches of skin can indicate the presence of mange.

A kitten’s eyes, ears and nose should be clean and free of any dirt or fluid discharges. Dark wax in a kitten’s ears is often caused by mites. Repetitive sneezing and coughing, or a runny nose is a sign of a respiratory infection. These animals require veterinary attention.

Another possible ailment afflicting kittens is chronic diarrhea. It can be detected by the presence of feces stains at the kitten’s hind end. This may be the result of stress from leaving its mother or from being in a new environment.

Ask the shelter staff, breeder, or store employees about the behaviour of the kittens you are viewing. Some kittens are naturally aloof and may take some time to grow accustomed to each new person. Other kittens are shy and afraid of both humans and other animals. If a young kitten cowers and tries to get away from you it is likely abnormally shy. This is a behavioural deficiency that can be difficult to correct and you may want to avoid selecting such a kitten. Remember, kittens tire quickly and a seemingly shy kitten may in fact just be sleepy.

When you choose a pet, you are making an important decision that will affect your life – and the life of the pet you select – for many years. It is important to take the time to choose wisely. A good choice will lead to a mutually beneficial relationship between you and your pet. Take the time to ask questions; pet ownership and all its benefits should be an enjoyable experience which can only be achieved by an educated and eager prospective owner.

Other Sources Of Information On Choosing A Pet

ASK VETERINARIANS, THE SPCA OR A HUMANE SOCIETY TO HELP YOU SELECT THE RIGHT PET. Ask satisfied neighbours and friends how they selected their pet and what makes their relationship with their pet successful. Kennel clubs and dog trainers may have good information about dogs. Cat fancier associations will have information about cats and kittens.

Look under ‘dog’ or ‘cat’ in your library or bookstore and you will find numerous books devoted to helping you select a pet. The Pet Owner’s Guide to Dogs by Kay White offers advice on selecting, training and maintaining a dog. The Cornell Book of Cats, edited by Mordecai Segal, offers advice on selecting a cat. It profiles numerous breeds and gives information about medical conditions that can afflict cats. Many other books with general information on dogs or cats will have a chapter or section dealing with pet selection.

Computer users with access to the World Wide Web can find further information if they use their browser to look up pet-related topics.

As you look for information on selecting a pet, you may wish to gather information on feeding and caring for your prospective pet. Books in your local library will contain this information. The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association has a booklet available called “A Commonsense Guide to Feeding Your Dog or Cat”, which can be obtained by writing to the CVMA, 339 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON CAN K1R 7K1.

When you choose a pet, you are making an important decision that will affect your life – and the life of the pet you select – for many years. It is important to take the time to choose wisely. A good choice will lead to a mutually beneficial relationship between you and your pet. Take the time to ask questions; pet ownership and all its benefits should be an enjoyable experience which can only be achieved by an educated and eager prospective owner.

Dental Health

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Do wish you had a gas mask on when your dog gets too close or your cat climbs up for some loving. Bad breath is a frequent complaint of many pet owners. Halitosis is a sign of significant dental disease in pets. Dental disease is the most commonly diagnosed disease in our pets. It is reported by the American Veterinary Dental Society that 80% of dogs and 70% of cats will have dental disease by the age of 3 years. The signs of dental disease include bad breath, yellowish discoloration of the teeth, redness at the gum edges and broken teeth.

Oral disease begins with the buildup of bacteria in your pet’s mouth. Bacteria combine with food debris and saliva to form plaque on teeth. The bacteria grow in the plaque and calcium salts are deposited to form plaque or tartar, which is what is seen as the yellowish discoloration on your pet’s teeth. The tartar attracts more bacteria and its rough surface enhances the attachment of bacteria. The bacteria are the real offenders in this process. The inflammation and destruction that accompanies periodontal disease results from the direct action of these bacteria and their by-products. Left untreated, dental diseased can lead to oral pain tooth, loss and disease in other parts of the body.

The bacteria that have accumulated in your pet’s mouth are also absorbed into the blood stream. Organs such as the kidneys, liver, heart and brain, which filter the blood, can develop small infections, which can lead to permanent organ damage.

The good news is that periodontal disease is preventable and treatable. If your pet has signs of dental disease a trip to see us is in order. The veterinarians at our clinic can examine your pet and determine a treatment plan for your furry friend. If significant disease is present your pet will require an in clinic treatment to remove built up tartar and plaque and to further treat the periodontal disease. Once your pet’s oral health has been restored preventative care can begin.

The best preventative care starts early before disease is present. The best way to prevent dental disease is to brush your pet’s teeth daily. If you are unable to brush your pet’s teeth everyday adding in a dental diet like Hill’s T/D will provide the dental care needed to keep your pet healthy. We are more than happy to talk to you about the options that exist and the right ones for your pet.

Winter Needs Outdoors for Pets

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Provide proper shelter, warmth, food, water, and exercise for dogs and cats during the winter months. While some dog breeds are better equipped to survive the winter outside, all dogs have basic needs to meet in order for them to survive the cold winter months. With the winter season quickly approaching it is time to think about pets that spend a majority of their time outside. Dogs are pack animals and should be considered a part of the family. It is my opinion that if the dog is going to spend it’s life in the back yard or in a pen or worse yet at the end of a chain, then what is the purpose in owning the dog? That being said, there are always going to be outside dogs and these dogs need special care during the winter months.

Temperature – If the temperature drops below freezing, please bring the animals inside, whether they are cats, dogs, rabbits, whatever. If its below freezing and the animals do not have proper shelter they could freeze to death. (I’ve seen it and it’s not pretty). If the animals are absolutely not allowed in the house then consider setting aside a special place for them to winter in the garage or a barn. If they are in the garage keep in mind that animals are also susceptible to carbon monoxide poisoning.

Arctic breeds – Many breeds of dogs can be traced back to the arctic, in some ways these breeds are going to be better equipped to handle the cold weather because they will have a thick undercoat to act as insulation. I can not possibly name all the breeds that can be considered arctic but some include: Samoyed, Siberian Husky, Alaskan Husky, Alaskan Malamute, American Eskimo Dog, Akita, Finnish Spitz, Norwegian Elkhound, Shiba Inu, Chow Chow, and Black Russian Terrier. Owning an arctic dog does not mean you do not have to provide a warm shelter. These dogs need shelter during the winter too.

Shelter – If you own an arctic breed of dog it will still need a warm shelter to retire to. This shelter should be sturdy, with a floor. The floor should be 1 – 2″ off the ground. The cold ground can literally suck the warmth out of your dog’s body. By elevating the floor of the shelter and building the walls so that they touch the ground, you leave a pocket of air under the doghouse that can act as insulation. The roof can be peaked and shingled. Size matters,. Your doghouse walls should be 1 ½ times longer then the dog and 1 ½ times taller then the dog, measuring from the ground to the shoulders. If the doghouse is made too big, the air inside will not fully warm and the dog will use a lot of energy trying to stay warm.

Warmth – All animals that are going to spend the winter outside need warmth. I know some dog owners who keep their dogs outside and provide wonderfully for them. Most of these people own hunting dogs or are very active and spend a lot of time with their dogs. These dog owners are over achievers and have heated doghouses Heated doghouses are definitely the way to go for outside dogs but take care not to use portable heaters as a heat source. They can burn your pet or start a fire. Bedding will also be needed. Straw and cedar can lead to allergy problems so I would stick with rugs and blankets that can be laundered. If the temperature drops and your pet is shivering then it is time to come inside. Older pets of any breed are more at risk for freezing then younger pets. Older dogs also suffer with arthritis which can be more troubling during the winter. Watch for frostbite, usually on ear tips, tail, and foot pads. Symptoms to look for include: ice on the body, shivering, affected tissues become red, then pale, then black. Seek help from a veterinarian if you suspect frostbite. Some short haired breeds or companion dog breeds lack an undercoat and will need a doggy sweater if they are going outside for any length of time. Longer haired dogs should have the coat trimmed around their paws so ice and snow does not collect around the toes and pads. The coat should be brushed daily and checked for mats; a matted coat does not insulate as well as a healthy coat.

Food and Water – During the winter an outside pet may require more calories in order to maintain a healthy weight. It takes more calories to stay warm so watch carefully, take your pet to the veterinarian for weight checks if necessary. An older dog or cat will not be able to withstand the cold as well as a younger animal so especially watch for weight loss in senior pets. Water should be provided in plastic bowls and kept ice free. If your water dish is metal the animals tongue could get stuck to the side. Remember being told not to stick your tongue to the flag pole? Heated water bowls can be purchased at pet stores and on the web, try petsafestore.com.

Play and Exercise – Outside pets need to play and exercise during the winter as well as when it is warm outside. Many times owners become fair weathered and stop exercising their pets during the winter months. Don’t forget your furry friends during the winter, many health concerns can be found during play and exercise – watch how your pet moves, is it limping? Limping and slow to move from a down position to a standing position and vice versa, and a hesitancy to go up and down stairs could indicate joint problems. Many times joint problems can be helped with medications prescribed by a veterinarian, don’t let your pet suffer in silence. Also watch your pet for weight loss. Outside pets need a fat covering to act as insulation against the cold. Spending more time with your pet will allow you to notice changes in your pets appearance and the way it moves and catch health problems sooner rather than later.

Additional Information – Keep pets away from rock salt as it can burn their paws. If your pet does walk through rock salt, wash its feet with warm soapy water immediately. Keep pets away from antifreeze; a very small amount will kill dogs and cats. If you see your pet swallow antifreeze get it to your veterinarian immediately. The sooner treatment is started the less damage is done to your pet’s kidneys. If treatment is not provided your pet will die. Cats like to find warm places to curl up and nap. Unfortunately during the winter many cats find their way into the hood of automobiles. During the winter, hit the hood of your vehicle several times to wake and scare the animal from the engine. Let’s face it, cats live longer as inside pets. © Charla Dawson

Seasonal Concerns

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Winter edition

Winter can be as much fun for your pet as it is for you. Pet owners need to take some precautions to keep their animal companions safe during this season.

Holiday Hazards

Alcohol

Alcohols can be found in many forms in addition to the obvious beverage sources. Other sources of toxicity can include raw dough containing baker’s or brewer’s yeast and antifreeze. Cats and dogs seem to be attracted to the smell and taste of alcohol. Again, cats are more sensitive to toxicity, but dogs are more likely to ingest the compound. Alcohol is metabolized in the body to compounds that can change the animal’s acid/base balance, resulting in symptoms ranging from depression, vomiting and dehydration to kidney failure, coma, and death. The prognosis for recovery is highly dependent on the rapidity of treatment, so if you suspect alcohol toxicity in your pet, it should be brought to your veterinarian as quickly as possible.

Onion, Garlic and Chives

A popular ingredient in recipes, all members of this plant family (Allium) are potentially toxic to pets. Both fresh plants and dried powders can be dangerous. Cats are much more susceptible than dogs, where even a small amount of onion powder in baby food can make a cat ill. The toxic compound causes destruction of red blood cells, resulting in the most common symptoms of weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, trouble breathing, and pale or blue mucous membranes.

Grapes and Raisins

Although grapes and raisins are not commonly encountered during the holidays, the severity of their potential toxicity warrants mention. They are a controversial topic, but all forms of grapes and raisins have been shown to cause acute kidney failure in some dogs, cats, and ferrets. For this reason, the ingestion of grapes and raisins by pets should be avoided.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

For those holiday headaches, we often reach for those pain killers. However, what is safe for humans is not necessarily safe for animals. Acetaminophen is especially toxic to cats, as they do possess the capability to eliminate the compound effectively. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, no interest in food, and depression. Swelling of the face also occurs in cats. Severe cases can result in liver failure, and medical treatment should be sought in cases of ingestion of any amount acetaminophen.

In addition, other pain killers (such as ibuprofen) can also be dangerous to pets. These should not be given to your animal under any circumstance, and consultation with your veterinarian is advised if any is ingested.

Poinsettia and Mistletoe

A common decorative piece during the holidays, poinsettia leaves, stems, and sap are poisonous to animals. The most common symptoms observed are vomiting and diarrhea (with or without blood), drooling, pawing at mouth, and swelling of the lips and tongue. Mistletoe berries are the most toxic, but the entire plant can be dangerous as well. Signs can be similar to poinsettia toxicity, but can also include heart and brain abnormalities, collapse, and death. Poinsettia and mistletoe plants, if a necessary addition to the household, should be kept well out of your pets’ reach.
Other common toxic household plants include aloe, amaryllis, lily, and daffodil.

Ribbon and Tinsel

Everyone knows that cats love playing with string. For some unknown reason, they love to chase it, catch it, and chew it. Unfortunately, “linear foreign objects” of all types – ribbon, yarn, thread, tinsel – can create life-threatening problems for animals if they are eaten. Although cats are more likely to ingest string, dogs are equally as susceptible. The issue arises when the string lodges somewhere in the intestinal tract, such as at the base of the tongue or while exiting the stomach, and the intestines continually try to move the string through. This is often a surgical emergency and prevention is the best way to deal with these situations.

Electrical Cords

In comes the holiday season and out come the twinkle lights. While the lights are beautiful, often electrical cords are to some animals the equivalent of licorice to children. They are fun to chew on, and are especially attractive to chew-happy puppies and rabbits. Electrical burns are painful and often life-threatening, so wires should be removed, hidden, buried, or out of reach from potential chewers.

Pancreatitis

Rich food can also take its toll, causing rebellion of the stomach and intestines, and inducing pancreatitis, a potentially life-threatening disease. Any dog can develop pancreatitis if given food it’s not used to. High-fat meals are especially bad. Pancreatitis is easy to avoid – don’t feed extras (or at least not in substantial amounts) and don’t give your dog access to a kitchen filled with food.

The Bottom Line

Enjoy the festivities, but at the same time be conscientious of what is in and around your household. If you know your pet is likely to get him or herself in to trouble, make sure you are one step ahead.

Happy Holidays from the staff at Highway 24 Veterinary Clinic!